Daniel Pink, the author of Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us, found that traditional rewards and punishments don't work. Not only do these methods fail to motivate students, but they can also act as deterrents. Pink found that motivation, particularly with respect to creative tasks, depends upon the provision of opportunities for mastery, a sense of purpose, and agency. When these conditions are in place, students are motivated to perform learning tasks for the mere pleasure of learning (Pink).
Sixth grade and graduate students surveyed after creating and playing Indy-inspired quests rated their experiences in terms designed to fall into Pink's three engagement categories: